Political parties. PRI – the ruling party in 1929-2000, until 1938 it was called the National Revolutionary Party, then the Party of the Mexican Revolution and from 1946 – PRI; up to 8 million members. The official doctrine of the party is revolutionary nationalism. Putting forward the modernization of the economy, reforming the state and increasing its role in social programs as priorities, the party defines itself as a “social democratic progressive center.” Retains a relative majority of seats in both houses of the Congress of the Union, has governors in 22 states of the country. PRI is a member of the Permanent Conference of Political Parties in Latin America and the Caribbean (COPPAL) and an observer in the Socialist International (IS). Chairman of the National Executive Committee (since March 2002) R. Madrazo, General Secretary of the party E. Esther Gordillo. Check diseaseslearning for political system of Mexico.
PAN was founded in 1939 and has been the ruling party since 2000. He speaks from the positions of the ideology of neoliberalism in the economy and neoconservatism in politics. It unites representatives of big capital, the middle urban strata, part of the peasantry and part of the Catholic intelligentsia, up to 500 thousand members. It is a member of the Christian Democratic International (IDK) and the Christian Democratic Organization of America (ODKA). Chairman of the National Executive Committee (since March 2002) L.F. Bravo Mena, general secretary of the party – M. Espino Barrientos.
The PRD was founded in 1989. It stands for the continuation of the democratic traditions of the Mexican Revolution, for the reorientation of the economy in the interests of the people, the deepening of democratic reforms and for an independent foreign policy and national sovereignty. The PRD is dominated by two main ideological directions: revolutionary-democratic and socialist. Member of the Socialist International, COPPAL and the Sao Paulo Forum. Party chairman (since April 2003) L. Godoy Rangel.
The Ecological Green Party of Mexico (PGEM) originated at the beginning. 1980s as the National Ecological Alliance, in 1986 it was transformed into the Mexican Green Party, which in 1993 received registration as PVEM, party chairman J.E. Gonzalez Martinez.
The Labor Party (PT) was formed in 1990 on the basis of a number of Trotskyist and Maoist groupings; it considers itself a socialist, democratic, and people’s party; the leader of the PT is A. Anaya Gutierrez.
The Convergence for Democracy (CD) was formed in 1993 by a number of former members of the PDP, led by Delgado Ranauro. Distribution of seats in the Congress of the Union – in the Senate (number of seats, according to the results of the elections on July 2, 2000): PRI – 60, PAN – 46, PRD – 15, PVEM – 5, Fri – 1, KD – 1; in the Chamber of Deputies (number of seats, according to the results of the elections on July 6, 2003): PRI – 223, PAN – 153, PRD – 96, PVEM – 17, Fri – 6, CD – 5.
Leading business organizations: Coordinating Business Council; Confederation of Proprietors of the Mexican Republic; Confederation of Industrial Chambers; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce, National Chamber of Manufacturing Industries; Bankers Association of Mexico; Mexican Business Council.
Other public organizations and elements of civil society: Confederation of Workers of Mexico; General Union of Workers and Peasants of Mexico; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers; National Peasant Confederation; Labor Congress; National Union of Workers; National Human Rights Commission.
Mexico pursues a neo-liberal policy of modernization and stabilization of the economy, liberalization of foreign trade and capital with a social orientation. In terms of combating social inequality, poverty and unemployment, targeted assistance programs are being carried out for the poorest strata and regions, reforming the education, healthcare and social security systems, and supporting small and medium-sized businesses. In the field of domestic political development, Mexico focuses on democratic reforms of state institutions aimed at separating the functions of powers, limiting the power of the president, creating a “new” federalism, a new system of public security, addressing issues of the rights and culture of the Indian population, etc.
In foreign policy, Mexico follows the principles written in the 1917 Constitution: respect for national self-determination, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, and the settlement of disputes between peoples by peaceful means. The policy of active diplomacy proclaimed by the government of V. Fox is aimed at achieving integration with the countries of Central America, political rapprochement with the states of Latin America and Europe, with OPEC, and at intensifying activities in international and regional organizations. Mexico is in favor of strengthening the UN as the main instrument for solving international problems. One of the priorities of Mexico is the signing of an agreement with the United States on the legalization and security of Mexican migrants on its territory.
The armed forces of Mexico carry out the tasks of defending the country and ensuring internal security. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is President W. Fox. The Ministry of National Defense exercises command of the Ground and Air Forces, the Ministry of the Navy – of the Naval Aviation and Navy. The National Guard is at the disposal of the President (with the approval of the Senate). The head of state may declare war (after prior permission from the Congress of the Union). The draft age is 18 years. Voluntary service in the army of women is allowed (since 2000). Of the total population aged 15-49, 72.5% are considered fit for military service (2002). The annual replenishment of the Armed Forces with conscripts is 1,077,536 people. (2002). Spending on the Armed Forces 1% of GDP (1999).
The United Mexican States have diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1924).