Ecuador is a unitary presidential republic. The 1998 Constitution is in force.
Ecuador is divided into 22 provinces: Asuay, Bolivar, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora Chinchipe. Provinces are divided into cantons, cantons into parishes. The largest cities: Guayaquil (main port), Quito, Cuenca. Check diseaseslearning for political system of Ecuador.
The highest legislative body is the National Congress. The highest body of executive power is the government. The head of state and government is the President of the country (since January 2003, Lucio Gutierrez). President of the National Congress – Guillermo Landasuri.
Voting is universal, direct, equal, secret and mandatory for literate people under 65 years of age (for evasion – a fine). The right to vote – from the age of 18 (those in active service in state power structures are deprived of it).
The President and Vice President are nominated by a single list; it is accepted that one of them comes from the Sierra, the other from the Costa. In the absence of an absolute majority, a 2nd round is held with the participation of the two leading pairs; it is not required if one of the couples received more than 40% and its gap from the nearest couple is more than 10% of the votes. They are elected for 4 years and can be re-elected after one term.
Deputies to the National Congress (121 people) are elected for 4 years by provinces (2 deputies from a province and 1 deputy from every 150,000-200,000 people of its population); may be re-elected.
The electoral process is organized and regulated by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal and the provincial electoral tribunals.
Electors have the right to recall, by a majority of votes, a deputy, mayor and prefect.
Local elected bodies of power are represented by provincial councils and their chairmen – prefects. Executive power in the provinces is exercised by a governor appointed by the president.
Each canton forms a municipal district, governed by an elected municipal council headed by a mayor elected for 4 years. The parishes have elected councils. A special regime on the Galapagos Islands, where the local budget and planning is under the control of a special institution, which includes, along with the authorities, representatives of science. Executive and legislative power in cities is exercised by elected alcaldes (mayors) and councillors. Local referendums are allowed in all administrative units.
Ecuador has a multi-party system. Main parties: People’s Democracy – Christian Democratic Union; Social Christian Party; Ecuadorian Roledoist Party; Democratic Left (social democratic orientation); Pachakutik – New country; Party Patriotic Union; Alpharist Radical Front; Ecuadorian Conservative Party; People’s Democratic Movement (in alliance with the Socialist Party – Wide Front bloc).
The main business organizations: 17 trade, 2 industrial, 3 agricultural and 1 mining chambers.
Other public organizations: Confederation of Indian Nationalities of Ecuador, Popular Front, Coordinating Center for Social Movements, Ekuarunari, National Federation of Peasants, Indians and Negroes.
The internal policy of President Gutierrez is being formed, its slogans are the fight against corruption and poverty, equal opportunities, judicial reform, a reduction in the number of judges and congressional deputies, depoliticization of judicial control bodies. For the first time, Indians won 2 seats in the government. In May 2003, the Indian movement disassociated itself from Gutierrez due to his collaboration with the IMF.
In foreign policy, the main partner of Ecuador is the United States: military-technical cooperation, support for Ecuador in negotiations with the Paris Club, dollarization, and the fight against drugs (for which in 1999 Ecuador provided the United States with an air force base in Manta). Main partners in Latin America: Peru, Brazil, Colombia. In the OAS, Ecuador advocates a reform of the concept of hemispheric security and participates in anti-corruption programs.
The armed forces (about 50 thousand people) consist of the Ground Forces (about 40 thousand people), the Air Force (4 thousand people), the Navy (about 5 thousand people, including 1 thousand people). marines). The supreme commander is the president. Universal conscription; selective conscription (from 18 years old), service life – 1 year. Ground forces – 12 brigades, approx. 150 tanks. Air Force – 3 combat and 1 transport regiment (135 aircraft and 15 helicopters); strike force – 3 squadrons (about 40 aircraft – Mirage, Kfir, Jaguar) based on Taura (Guayas). The basis of the Navy is a destroyer and a frigate, 2 submarines, 6 corvettes and 6 missile-carrying boats. All military equipment is foreign-made. Military budget 3.4%, or $720 million.
Ecuador has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1945, the exchange of embassies – in 1970).