After the October 6, 2002 parliamentary elections, 11 parties are still represented in the National Congress. In the Chamber of Deputies, in addition to the PT (91 deputies out of 513), relatively strong positions were occupied by both right and center-right (Liberal Front Party – 84, Brazilian Progressive Party – 49, Brazilian Trabalist Party – 26, Liberal Party – 26), and moderate center and center-left parties (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement – 75, Party of Brazilian Social Democracy – 70, Democratic Trabalist Party – 21). The presence of left-wing parties is also noticeable: the Brazilian Socialist Party – 22, the Socialist People’s Party – 15 and the Communist Party of Brazil – 12 deputies. Check diseaseslearning for political system of Brazil.
After the re-election of 2/3 of the Senate, the strongest positions are occupied by the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (19 senators), the Liberal Front Party (19), the Labor Party (14) and the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (11).
An important pressure group is the Federation of Industrialists of the State of São Paulo and other business organizations, the left wing of the Catholic Church. Extremely radical positions are occupied by the Movement of the Landless, associated with the Workers’ Party, and the United Trade Union Center of Workers (CUT) is more moderate. Among the elements of civil society, the Committee for the Democratization of Information, the Environmental Protection Group, Ecoforce, human rights and other non-governmental organizations play an important role.
Important changes in domestic politics took place during the presidency of F.E. Cardoso (1994 – 2002). Significant adjustments were made to the classic neo-liberal recipes, in particular, the role of the state was revised, leaving the sphere of the economy and focusing on economic regulation, mobilizing resources to achieve priority goals and solving social problems. Privatization has become systemic. The incomes of the poorest segments of the population have slightly increased, an administrative reform has been partially carried out aimed at increasing the efficiency of the state apparatus, the Armed Forces have been reduced, and the taxation system has been somewhat simplified. The main political reforms are connected with changes in the electoral legislation and the re-election of senior officials for the 2nd term. Attention was paid to strengthening the rule of law, in particular, to clarify the fate of those who went missing during the years of the military regime. At the same time, F.E. Cardoso failed to alleviate the severity of social problems, agrarian reform was moving extremely slowly, which provoked unauthorized land seizures. The financial crisis of 1999 showed the need to make adjustments to domestic economic policy as well. Ultimately, the ongoing reforms did not give the expected results, social disintegration and polarization increased, and privatization was accompanied by widespread corruption.
The unfavorable economic situation and the need to restore the confidence of business circles and part of the middle strata forced the government of L.I. Lula da Silva (since 2003) to abandon the declared radical slogans and to a large extent ensure the continuity of domestic politics, which caused disappointment among part of the leftist electorate and exacerbated internal contradictions in the Workers’ Party. The main priorities are accelerating economic growth and curbing inflation while postponing structural reforms, redistributing national income, raising the living standards of the least well-to-do, combating hunger, building cheap housing, agrarian reform, creating new jobs, reforming the social security and taxation system, fighting with corruption.
In the field of foreign policy, an agreement was signed in 1991 on the creation of the MERCOSUR integration association (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay). Contradictions with the United States (trade protectionism, Brazil’s accusations of dumping and violations of intellectual property rights) did not prevent it from supporting the idea of creating an all-American free trade area (ALCA) by 2005. At the same time, Brazil advocated a later date for the introduction of ALCA and a softer regime for its technology-intensive industries. Brazil is in favor of strengthening the legal foundations of international relations in the course of reforming the UN Charter (expanding the number of permanent members of the Security Council, prohibiting the use of force and so-called humanitarian interventions that are not authorized by the Security Council). Brazil has acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1998) and the regime of control over the non-proliferation of missile technologies. Russian-Brazilian relations were marked by the signing of a joint political declaration and an agreement on military-technical cooperation (1997), the creation of a mixed bilateral commission on trade (1997), visits to Moscow by Vice President J. Maciel (2000) and President F. E. Cardoso (2002). President LI Lula da Silva fulfills all of Brazil’s international obligations. Among the priorities of foreign policy are the creation of a Latin American bloc based on MERCOSUR and the intensification of cooperation between the “giant countries” (China, India, Russia).
The armed forces consist of the Army (Ground Forces), Air Force, Navy and Federal Police. Completed on the basis of universal military service. Military spending is $13.4 billion (1.9% of GDP).
Brazil has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the Russian Empire in 1828, with the USSR in April 1945, severed in October 1947, restored in November 1961).