The America is called the second largest continent in the world. It is located in the western hemisphere of the planet and occupies, from north to south, from the Arctic glacial ocean to Cape Horn; It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west. It has an area of approximately 40 million square kilometers, which constitutes 30.2% of the surface of the earth’s crust, and a population of almost one billion inhabitants, that is, 12% of the world population.
The origin of the place-name America is attributed to the cosmographer Américo Vespucio, who was the first to realize that the lands belonging to the American continent were not part of the West Indies, as was initially believed, but constituted a different continent. As such, the name was first used in the Cosmographiae Introductio treatise, by Mathias Ringmann, to accompany the Universalis Cosmographia wall planisphere, authored by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller.
The America was populated, according to Countryaah, approximately 40 thousand years ago, from emigrations from Asia and the Pacific. Aboriginal civilizations, in this sense, spread throughout the continental mass and developed their cultures and languages for centuries. This entire civilization stage prior to the arrival of European man is usually referred to as pre-Columbian America or pre- Hispanic America, that is, before the arrival of Columbus and the Spaniards.
In the official history of the American continent, the year 1492 is traditionally verified as the moment when America and Europe begin to register a significant contact of mutual encounter and discovery. However, there are indications that since centuries before there were Viking settlements in the northern part of the continent.
The division of the American continent has always been problematic. On the one hand, we find the one that separates the continent by geographical sub-regions, where they are distinguished: South America (from the isthmus of Panama to the south), Central America (from the isthmus of Panama to Mexico), the West Indies (Greater, smaller Antilles and Bahamas Islands) and North America (from Mexico to Canada).
On the other hand, in response to cultural and linguistic differences, other divisions have been attempted. The most popular is the one that distinguishes Latin America, made up of all the countries of Latin languages and cultures, such as Spanish, Portuguese and French, and Anglo – Saxon America, consisting of nations of British heritage. However, it is also possible to differentiate between Latin cultural traditions and make another distinction: Hispanic America, Portuguese America and Francophone America. Finally, to avoid all kinds of controversy, there are those who choose to designate the continent simply as the Americas.
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