The America is called the second largest continent in the world. It is located in the western hemisphere of the planet and occupies, from north to south, from the Arctic glacial ocean to Cape Horn; It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west. It has an area of approximately 40 million square kilometers, which constitutes 30.2% of the surface of the earth’s crust, and a population of almost one billion inhabitants, that is, 12% of the world population.
The origin of the place-name America is attributed to the cosmographer Américo Vespucio, who was the first to realize that the lands belonging to the American continent were not part of the West Indies, as was initially believed, but constituted a different continent. As such, the name was first used in the Cosmographiae Introductio treatise, by Mathias Ringmann, to accompany the Universalis Cosmographia wall planisphere, authored by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller.
The continent of North America
North America is around 25 million km². About 523 million North Americans live on the continent, which corresponds to 7.9 percent of the world population.
The name America (Latin America) is derived from the first name of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci, who explored large parts of the South American east coast. The German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller named the continent on his world map from 1507 for the first time “America”, parallel to Asia and Europe the feminine form of the Latinized first name.
The most populous North American states are the United States of America, Mexico and Canada, the largest in terms of area Canada, the United States of America and Greenland.
Countries of South America
French Guiana – North of South America
French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France. The capital of the country is Cayenne. Approx. 196,000 French Guiana, French Guiana and residents of other nationalities live in French Guiana, making French Guiana one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world. The official language is French. French Guiana covers an area of around 91,000 km² and is therefore somewhat larger than the Republic of Austria. Neighboring countries are Brazil and Suriname.
Peru – South America’s west
Peru, the land of the Incas, is a state in South America. The capital is Lima. About 32 million Peruvians and people of other nationalities live in Peru. The official languages are Spanish, Quechua and Aimara. Peru covers an area of around 1 million km² and is about four times the size of Poland. The highest mountain in Peru is the Nevado Huascarán with 6,768 meters. Neighboring countries are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia.
The national holiday of Peru is July 28th (independence day from Spain in 1821).
Suriname – North of South America
Suriname is a state in South America. The capital of the country is Paramaribo. About 493,000 Surinamans and residents of other nationalities live in Suriname, making Suriname one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world. The official language is Dutch. Suriname covers an area of around 163,000 km² and is about five times the size of Belgium. Neighboring countries are Brazil, Guyana and French Guiana.
Uruguay – South America’s southern cone
Uruguay, the Switzerland of Latin America, is a country in South America. The capital is Montevideo. Around 3.5 million Uruguayans, Uruguayans and residents of other nationalities, live in Uruguay. The official language is Spanish. Uruguay covers an area of around 176,000 km² and is therefore about twice the size of the Republic of Austria. Neighboring countries are Brazil and Argentina.
Venezuela – South America’s north
Venezuela is a state in South America. The capital of the country is Caracas. Around 27 million Venezuelans and people of other nationalities live in Venezuela. The official language is Spanish. Venezuela covers an area of around 912,000 km² and is therefore about three times the size of Italy. The highest mountain in Venezuela is Pico Bolívar at 4,981 meters. Neighboring countries are Brazil, Colombia and Guyana.
The American countries were populated, according to Countryaah, approximately 40 thousand years ago, from emigrations by Asia and the Pacific. Aboriginal civilizations, in this sense, spread throughout the continental mass and developed their cultures and languages for centuries. This entire civilization stage prior to the arrival of European man is usually referred to as pre-Columbian America or pre- Hispanic America, that is, before the arrival of Columbus and the Spaniards.
In the official history of the American continent, the year 1492 is traditionally verified as the moment when America and Europe begin to register a significant contact of mutual encounter and discovery. However, there are indications that since centuries before there were Viking settlements in the northern part of the continent.
The division of the American continent has always been problematic. On the one hand, we find the one that separates the continent by geographical sub-regions, where they are distinguished: South America (from the isthmus of Panama to the south), Central America (from the isthmus of Panama to Mexico), the West Indies (Greater, smaller Antilles and Bahamas Islands) and North America (from Mexico to Canada).
On the other hand, in response to cultural and linguistic differences, other divisions have been attempted. The most popular is the one that distinguishes Latin America, made up of all the countries of Latin languages and cultures, such as Spanish, Portuguese and French, and Anglo – Saxon America, consisting of nations of British heritage. However, it is also possible to differentiate between Latin cultural traditions and make another distinction: Hispanic America, Portuguese America and Francophone America. Finally, to avoid all kinds of controversy, there are those who choose to designate the continent simply as the Americas.